Resource Bullet
Resource Protection

Incident Response

Ships allow human access and make activities possible in the vast and remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Vessels, however, can introduce specific hazards to the marine environment via physical impacts caused by groundings and fuel, chemical, and oil spills. Biological impacts, including introduction of alien species through hull fouling or ballast water discharge, and interactions with protected marine species, are also a concern. The monument addresses threats from vessels of all types through prohibitions and permit conditions, though mechanical failure and human error continue to present dangers.